Epilepsy

Epilepsy, is a temporary condition in which brain cells can not function normally due to occasional abnormal electrical activity appearing. Epilepsy affects almost 1% of the world population. It occurs as episodes of seizures. There are specific symptoms depending on the brain region where abnormal electrical activity takes place. Therefore, different types of epileptic seizures occur. In some seizures, patients fall in a faint with loss of consciousness. Patients have convulsive seizures accompanied by foaming from the mouth. In another seizure type, where  only a particular part of the brain is affected, contractions and jerking activity appears on body parts which are controlled by the affected brain region.  There is also another type of seizure accompanied by short, dull, blank stare in eyes.  
Causes of epilepsy include brain trauma such as traffic accidents, tumors, genetic factors, infections or ischemia, which is decreased blood flow to the brain tissue.

Diagnosis

Information from patients’ family members is particularly vital for the diagnosis of epilepsy. In addition, brain tomography, EEG (allowing the recording of fluctuations of the electrical activity of a neuron groups), MR and some other tests are crucial to diagnose epilepsy. Determining the seizure type is particularly helpful on the selection of the appropriate medication treatment. 

Treatment

The medication therapy depends on the epileptic seizure type. With  proper treatment, majority of patients pursue their daily life with ease keeping seizures under control. Strictly complying with the medication plan is vital for treatment.  Although treatment with single medication is often sufficient, additional medication might be necessary when seizures cannot be controlled. 

References;
1. Turkish Chapter of International League Against Epilepsy
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